The 41st book in the Penguin Moderns series is Betty Friedan’s The Problem That Has No Name. The selected work in this volume was first published in her seminal The Feminine Mystique (1963), in which Friedan ‘gave voice to countless American housewives… and set the women’s movement in motion’. In The Problem That Has No Name, one finds the titular essay, as well as a piece entitled ‘The Passionate Journey’.
I have read criticism about Friedan’s work before, and other tracts which mention her, but this was my first taste of her original work. Friedan notices a marked shift between the 1920s and 1950s in the priorities of women in the United States: ‘A century earlier, women had fought for higher education; now girls went to college to get a husband. By the mid fifties, 60 per cent dropped out of college to marry, or because they were afraid too much education would be a marriage bat.’ This denotes a crisis in society; few women decided to pursue careers for their own fulfilment, working instead to support their families.
Friedan’s work is all-encompassing, and she is very understanding of Everywoman. The first essay begins in the following way: ‘The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning that women suffered in the middle of the twentieth century in the United States. Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries, matched slip-cover material, ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children, chauffered Cub Scouts and Brownies, lay beside her husband at night, she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question: “Is this all?”‘ As the title of this work suggests, Friedan suggests reasons as to why a name had never before seen given to ‘this yearning in the millions of words written about women, for women…’. The ‘problem that has no name’ consisted of the many women believing that any individuality they once had was swallowed up as soon as they became wives and mothers.
Useful statistics have been woven in throughout The Problem That Has No Name, in order to reinforce or better illustrate Friedan’s points. She also makes use of the many interviews which she has conducted with females all across America, discussing various problems which they had with their husbands or children. It is in these instances that her profession of magazine journalism really shows. She notes the point at which she began to notice signs of something buried within widespread society, and common for so many different women: ‘But after a while I began to recognize the telltale signs of this other problem. I saw the same signs in suburban ranch houses and split-levels on Long Island and in New Jersey and Westchester County; in colonial houses in a small Massachusetts town; on patios in Memphis; in suburban and city apartments; in living rooms in the Midwest.’ In the 1960s, Friedan notes that news outlets began to report on ‘the actual unhappiness of the American housewife.’ Although she does not talk about her own life in detail, Friedan also touches upon her own experiences of bringing up her children during this period.
The dissatisfaction of women is a major theme in the second essay too, but from an historical perspective which focuses on the path to women’s rights. ‘The Passionate Journey’ begins: ‘It was the need for a new identity that started women, a century ago, on that passionate journey… away from home.’ Of this journey, which women felt compelled to make in order to keep a grasp on their personal individuality, and to try and escape from societal confines, Friedan writes: ‘Theirs was an act of rebellion, a violent denial of the identity of women as it was then defined. It was the need for a new identity that led these passionate feminists to forge new trails for women. Some of these trails were unexpectedly rough, some were dead ends, and some may have been false, but the need for women to find new trails was real.’ This essay is a real celebration of what women have achieved.
Friedan’s writing style is highly accessible, and she takes a clear point of view throughout. Her prose is highly engaging and quite easygoing, despite the wealth of information which she denotes. She is incredibly perceptive of womankind, viewing them as individuals rather than as a singular collective, and recognising that many women who were suffering silently during the period which she examines did so for myriad reasons. The Problem That Has No Name is an empowering tome, and I will certainly be reading the rest of The Feminine Mystique at some point. Despite the fact that it was published over five decades ago, Friedan’s work is still highly relevant in the twenty-first century.