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2018 Travel: Books Set in America

My second stop on my 2018 travel list is America; I travelled to the Niagara Falls State Park in New York State whilst on holiday in Canada.  Here are seven of my favourite books set in various states around the US.

26571. To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee (1960)
The unforgettable novel of a childhood in a sleepy Southern town and the crisis of conscience that rocked it, To Kill A Mockingbird became both an instant bestseller and a critical success when it was first published in 1960. It went on to win the Pulitzer Prize in 1961 and was later made into an Academy Award-winning film, also a classic.  Compassionate, dramatic, and deeply moving, To Kill A Mockingbird takes readers to the roots of human behavior – to innocence and experience, kindness and cruelty, love and hatred, humor and pathos. Now with over 18 million copies in print and translated into forty languages, this regional story by a young Alabama woman claims universal appeal. Harper Lee always considered her book to be a simple love story. Today it is regarded as a masterpiece of American literature.

2. The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck (1939)
First published in 1939, Steinbeck’s Pulitzer Prize winning epic of the Great Depression chronicles the Dust Bowl migration of the 1930s and tells the story of one Oklahoma farm family, the Joads, driven from their homestead and forced to travel west to the promised land of California. Out of their trials and their repeated collisions against the hard realities of an America divided into haves and have-nots evolves a drama that is intensely human yet majestic in its scale and moral vision, elemental yet plainspoken, tragic but ultimately stirring in its human dignity.  A portrait of the conflict between the powerful and the powerless, of one man’s fierce reaction to injustice, and of one woman’s stoical strength, the novel captures the horrors of the Great Depression and probes the very nature of equality and justice in America.
3. The Secret Life of Bees by Sue Monk Kidd (2001) 37435
Set in South Carolina in 1964, The Secret Life of Bees tells the story of Lily Owens, whose life has been shaped around the blurred memory of the afternoon her mother was killed. When Lily’s fierce-hearted black “stand-in mother,” Rosaleen, insults three of the deepest racists in town, Lily decides to spring them both free. They escape to Tiburon, South Carolina–a town that holds the secret to her mother’s past. Taken in by an eccentric trio of black beekeeping sisters, Lily is introduced to their mesmerizing world of bees and honey, and the Black Madonna. This is a remarkable novel about divine female power, a story women will share and pass on to their daughters for years to come.
4. The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger (1951)
The hero-narrator of The Catcher in the Rye is an ancient child of sixteen, a native New Yorker named Holden Caulfield. Through circumstances that tend to preclude adult, secondhand description, he leaves his prep school in Pennsylvania and goes underground in New York City for three days. The boy himself is at once too simple and too complex for us to make any final comment about him or his story. Perhaps the safest thing we can say about Holden is that he was born in the world not just strongly attracted to beauty but, almost, hopelessly impaled on it. There are many voices in this novel: children’s voices, adult voices, underground voices-but Holden’s voice is the most eloquent of all. Transcending his own vernacular, yet remaining marvelously faithful to it, he issues a perfectly articulated cry of mixed pain and pleasure. However, like most lovers and clowns and poets of the higher orders, he keeps most of the pain to, and for, himself. The pleasure he gives away, or sets aside, with all his heart. It is there for the reader who can handle it to keep.
63365615. The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams (1945)
Abandoned by her husband, Amanda Wingfield comforts herself with recollections of her earlier, life in Blue Mountain when she was pursued by ‘gentleman callers’. Her son Tom, a poet with a job in a warehouse, longs for adventure and escape from his mother’s suffocating embrace, while Laura, her daughter, has her glass menagerie and her memories.
6. The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath (1963)
Sylvia Plath’s shocking, realistic, and intensely emotional novel about a woman falling into the grip of insanity.   Esther Greenwood is brilliant, beautiful, enormously talented, and successful, but slowly going under—maybe for the last time. In her acclaimed and enduring masterwork, Sylvia Plath brilliantly draws the reader into Esther’s breakdown with such intensity that her insanity becomes palpably real, even rational—as accessible an experience as going to the movies. A deep penetration into the darkest and most harrowing corners of the human psyche, The Bell Jar is an extraordinary accomplishment and a haunting American classic.
7. One Summer: America 1927 by Bill Bryson (2013; review here) 17612752
Britain’s favourite writer of narrative non-fiction Bill Bryson travels back in time to a forgotten summer when America came of age, took centre stage, and, in five eventful months, changed the world for ever.  In the summer of 1927, America had a booming stock market, a president who worked just four hours a day (and slept much of the rest of the time), a semi-crazed sculptor with a mad plan to carve four giant heads into an inaccessible mountain called Rushmore, a devastating flood of the Mississippi, a sensational murder trial, and a youthful aviator named Charles Lindbergh who started the summer wholly unknown and finished it as the most famous man on earth. (So famous that Minnesota considered renaming itself after him.)  It was the summer that saw the birth of talking pictures, the invention of television, the peak of Al Capone’s reign of terror, the horrifying bombing of a school in Michigan by a madman, the ill-conceived decision that led to the Great Depression, the thrillingly improbable return to greatness of a wheezing, over-the-hill baseball player named Babe Ruth, and an almost impossible amount more.  In this hugely entertaining book, Bill Bryson spins a story of brawling adventure, reckless optimism and delirious energy, with a cast of unforgettable and eccentric characters, with trademark brio, wit and authority.

 

Have you read any of these?  Which, if any, take your fancy?

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Reading the World: Italy

Our next stop is Italy; hopefully it will fill you with springtime joy to visit the beautiful landscapes and well-paced way of life which are evoked in the following books.

1. Inkheart by Cornelia Funke (2003)
‘Meggie loves books. So does her father, Mo, a bookbinder, although he has never read aloud to her since her mother mysteriously disappeared. They live quietly until the night a stranger knocks at their door. He has come with a warning that forces Mo to reveal an extraordinary secret – a storytelling secret that will change their lives for ever.’

2. Titus Andronicus by William Shakespeare (c. 1588-1593) 9780199536108
‘Titus Andronicus was the young Shakespeare’s audacious, sporadically brilliant experiment in sensational tragedy. Its horrors are notorious, but its powerful poetry of grief is the work of a true tragic poet.’

3. The Enchanted April by Elizabeth von Arnim (1922)
‘A discreet advertisement in ‘The Times’, addressed to ‘Those who Apppreciate Wisteria and Sunshine…’ is the impetus for a revelatory month for four very different women. High above the bay on the Italian Riviera stands San Salvatore, a mediaeval castle. Beckoned to this haven are Mrs. Wilkins, Mrs Arbuthnot, Mrs Fisher and Lady Caroline Dester, each quietly craving a respite. Lulled by the Mediterranean spirit, they gradually shed their skins and discover a harmony each of them has longed for but never known. First published in 1922 and reminscient of ‘Elizabeth and her German Garden’, this delightful novel is imbued with the descriptive power and light-hearted irreverence for which Elizabeth von Arnin is renowned.’

4. Death in Venice by Thomas Mann 9780486287140
‘”Death in Venice, ” tells about a ruinous quest for love and beauty amid degenerating splendor. Gustav von Aschenbach, a successful but lonely author, travels to the Queen of the Adriatic in search of an elusive spiritual fulfillment that turns into his erotic doom. Spellbound by a beautiful Polish boy, he finds himself fettered to this hypnotic city of sun-drenched sensuality and eerie physical decay as it gradually succumbs to a secret epidemic.’

5. The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole (1764)
”Look, my lord! See heaven itself declares against your impious intentions!’ The Castle of Otranto (1764) is the first supernatural English novel and one of the most influential works of Gothic fiction. It inaugurated a literary genre that will be forever associated with the effects that Walpole pioneered. Professing to be a translation of a mysterious Italian tale from the darkest Middle Ages, the novel tells of Manfred, prince of Otranto, whose fear of an ancient prophecy sets him on a course of destruction. After the grotesque death of his only son, Conrad, on his wedding day, Manfred determines to marry the bride-to-be. The virgin Isabella flees through a castle riddled with secret passages. Chilling coincidences, ghostly visitations, arcane revelations, and violent combat combine in a heady mix that terrified the novel’s first readers.’

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Classics Club #21: ‘A View from the Bridge’ by Arthur Miller ****

I received the gorgeous little Penguin edition of Arthur Miller’s A View from the Bridge for my birthday.  Despite only having read two of his plays to date (rather predictably Death of a Salesman and The Crucible), I count Miller amongst my list of favourite playwrights.  The foreword in this volume was penned by the wonderful Philip Seymour Hoffman, and an introduction written by Miller himself has also been included.  Of A View from the Bridge, Nicholas Hynter, director of the Royal National Theatre, says: ‘[it] will always stand with the masterpieces of Ibsen, Shakespeare and Sophocles’.

Written in 1955, the play, which was based upon a tale Miller was once told, tells of Italian Eddie Carbone, and is a ‘tragic masterpiece of the inexorable unravelling of a man’.  Miller speaks the way in which A View from the Bridge was ‘generally regarded as rather cold’ at first, and failed to find a large audience upon its initial Broadway run.  The version of the play which is currently in print has been revised by its author, who writes, ‘I was tired of mere sympathy in the theater.  The spectacle of still another misunderstood victim left me impatient…  I wanted to write in a way that would call up the faculties of knowing as well as feeling’.

In his foreword, Hoffman writes engagingly of Miller’s work: ‘Here we find the true compassion and catharsis that are as essential to our society as water and fire and babies and air…  Miller awakened in me the taste for all that must be – the empathy and love for the least of us, out of which bursts a gratitude for the poetry of these characters and the greatness of their creator’.

In A View from the Bridge, immigrant Eddie Carbone is living in a tattered Brooklyn tenement in a rundown neighbourhood with his wife, Beatrice, and niece, Catherine.  In and around this location is where all of the action takes place.  Eddie is a longshoreman, ‘working the docks from Brooklyn Bridge to the breakwater where the open sea begins’.  Beatrice is thrilled when her Italian cousins make it off the boat in New York; Eddie less so.  Miller has captured Beatrice’s reaction perfectly: ‘I’m – I just – I can’t believe it!  I didn’t even buy a new tablecloth; I was gonna wash the walls -‘.  A nice subplot regarding Catherine’s intention to leave school early and take up a position as a stenographer has also been inwoven.  The play opens with a long monologue spoken by Alfieri, a lawyer.  He talks directly to the audience, giving the context of the scene which he is both a part of and separate from.  Alfieri is essentially used in place of a Greek chorus; he serves much the same function.

I very much admired the way in which Miller simply yet thoroughly set his scenes; his stage directions are precise, and immediately begin to build realistic pictures in the reader’s mind.  As with Death of a Salesman, the very notion of the American Dream and its failures are brought to prominence.  Thematically, A View from the Bridge is fascinating.  The dialogue between the more minor characters does tend to be a little repetitive at times, but the entire play is so measured and precise.

Miller’s main aim in translating the original story to the stage, and the way in which he interpreted the action, were for the following purpose: ‘by knowing more than the hero, the audience would rather automatically see his [Eddie Carbone’s] life through conceptualized feelings’.  Of his revision, he rather insightfully states that ‘Eddie is still not a man to weep over; the play does not attempt to swamp our audience in tears.  But it is more possible now to relate his actions to our own and thus to understand ourselves a little better not only as isolated psychological entities, but as we connect to our fellows and our long past together’.  For all of these reasons, and arguably for many more, A View from the Bridge is an incredibly powerful play, which I would highly recommend.

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Classics Club #11: ‘Medea’ by Euripides ****

The only Euripides play which I had read before compiling my Classics Club list was The Bacchae, an incredibly interesting work which I read as part of my undergraduate studies at University.  As much as I was coveting the Oxford World Classics edition of Medea (pictured), I downloaded an older Oxford University Press copy to my Kindle instead so that I could take it on holiday with me as a last-minute read.

9780199537969One of Euripides’ earliest plays, and one which was translated into ‘English Rhyming Verse’ by Gilbert Murray in 1906, the edition has a wordy yet thoughtful introduction: ‘The Medea, in spite of its background of wonder and enchantment, is not a romantic play but a tragedy of character and situation.  It deals, so to speak, not with the romance itself, but with the end of the romance, a thing which is so terribly often the reverse of romantic for all but the very highest of romances are apt to have just one flaw somewhere, and in the story of Jason and Medea the flaw was of a fatal kind’.

Jason met Medea when the Argonauts looked certain to be just days away from destruction.  She was ‘an enchantress as well as a princess’, banished with her two children by Creon, who ‘helped him through all his trials; slew for him her own sleepless serpent, who guarded the fleece; deceived her father, and secured both the fleece and the soul of Phrixus’.  Medea also ‘formed at the least a brilliant addition to the glory of his enterprise.  Not many heroes could produce a barbarian princess ready to leave all and follow them in blind trust’.

First acted in 431BC, and set in Corinth, where Creon is living, Medea is an incredibly absorbing play.  So many emotions are brought to the fore, and the whole is rather dark from its very beginnings.  Each of the characters has been beautifully and believably developed.  The Nurse says the following, for example: ‘Rude are the wills of princes: yea, / Prevailing alway, seldom crossed, / On fitful minds their moods are tossed: / ‘Tis best men tread the equal way. // Aye, not with glory but with peace / May the long summers find me crowned; / For gentleness – her very sound / Is magic, and her usages’.  Medea herself, in a later Act, gives the following, rather stirring speech, which exemplifies the position of women in Euripides’ world: ‘Women of Corinth, I am come to show / My face, lest ye despise me… / Oh we are drifting things, / And evil!  For what truth is in men’s eyes, / Which search no heart, but in a flash despise / A strange face, shuddering back from one that ne’er / Hath wronged them?’

The monologues within Medea are nothing short of exquisitely crafted, and the dialogue between various players is both striking and thought-provoking.  Each and every character, no matter the number of lines which they have to utter, has a distinctive voice.  The whole is well textured, both geographically and historically, and the social constructs within it are fascinating, particularly when seen from a modern viewpoint.  In Medea, Euripides successfully adds another layer to the myth of Jason and Medea, and probes their relationship in an engaging and absorbing manner.

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Classics Club #27: ‘Antigone’ by Sophocles ****

Sophocles’ Antigone is the third and final play in the Oedipus series, and the first of which I read.  I believed – quite rightly with regard to my out-of-order trilogy reading this time – that each play could be treated as an individual entity, as the outstanding elements of the plot which were of relevance were covered before it began.

A quick overview of the plot here is of importance.  Antigone is the daughter of Oedipus, the late king of Thebes.  In defiance of Creon, who has taken over his rule, she decides to bury her brother, who was slain during the attack upon Thebes.  Creon inevitably finds out about this and, not willing to listen to Antigone’s explanation, decides that she should be imprisoned within ‘a rock-hewn chamber’.  Haemon, Creon’s son, to whom she is betrothed, pleads for her life, and succeeds.  As is the norm in such plays, Antigone is quite unaware of this, and hangs herself.  Haemon is then found by her side after his own suicide attempt.

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As a character, Antigone is incredibly well developed.  Her own musings about her impending death and what it will mean are the perfect balance of sensitivity and bravery: ‘Friends, countrymen, my last farewell I make; / My journey’s done. / One last fond, lingering, longing look I take / At the bright sun. / For Death who puts to sleep both young and old / Hales my young life, / And beckons me to Acheron’s dark fold, / An unwed wife’.

Antigone is rather a slim play, and accordingly has rather a select cast.  As is, almost without exception, the case in Ancient Greek plays, the entity of the Chorus set the scenes and backgrounds.  Here, they do so wonderfully.  They seamlessly move the story along, and place the action of the play within a very well-constructed whole.  The Chorus are an incredibly moral group; they are essentially overseers who add their own judgements and sense of right and wrong to proceedings.  This, too, gives the whole a wider scope.

The translation which I read, by an oddly anonymous translator, was rather old-fashioned in terms of both rhythm and the vocabulary used, but I very much enjoyed the way in which the text had been interpreted.  The rhyme scheme works perfectly, as does the urgency and intensity of some of the scenes: ‘Antigone, so young, so fair, / Thus hurried down / Death’s bower with the dead to share’.  Emotions have been well considered throughout.

Antigone is not my favourite play, but it is a most interesting and enjoyable one nonetheless.  In it, Sophocles provides us with a fascinating window upon the ancient world.

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American Literature Month: Flash Reviews from the Archives

A series of flash reviews of American Literature seems a fitting interlude to post amongst the extensive reviews of late.  These have all been posted on the blog over the last couple of years.

As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner ****
I adore the Deep South as a setting and am wondering why, after finishing this stunning novel, I’ve not read any of Faulkner’s work before.  I adored the differing perspectives throughout, and the way in which each and every one of them was so marvellously distinct.  The story is such an absorbing one, and I love the idea of it – a family waiting for and commenting upon the death of one of their members.  Faulkner’s differing prose techniques in use in As I Lay Dying are wonderful, and show that as a writer, he is incredibly skilled.  Terribly sad on the whole and very cleverly constructed.

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Let The Great World Spin by Colum McCann ***
I have read some absolutely marvellous reviews of this novel, and couldn’t wait to begin it.  The prologue of Let The Great World Spin is visually stunning and well thought out.  If only the rest of the book had been the same!  I enjoyed the author’s writing on the whole – some of his descriptions, for example, are sumptuous – but my stumbling block came with the characters.  They were interesting enough on the whole, but they were all so broken, often by alcohol and drugs.  Because of this, no distinct characters stood out for me, and I found it difficult to empathise with any of them in consequence.  An interesting novel, but a little disappointing by all accounts.

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Naomi and Ely’s No Kiss List by Rachel Cohn and David Levithan ****
Summer days warrant these witty, fun reads for me.  The books which Cohn and Levithan write are not your usual teen fare.  Rather than being fluffy, simply written and overly predictable (sorry, Sara Dessen, but I’m looking at you), their tales are smart, well constructed, intelligent in their prose and rather unique in terms of the cast of characters they create.  Yes, I suppose that there was an element of predictability here with regard to the ending, but the entire story was so well wrought that it really didn’t matter.  The characters are all marvellous, with perhaps the exclusion of Naomi, whom I found to be an incredibly difficult protagonist to get along with.  I loved the way in which Cohn and Levithan tackled serious issues – the rocky road of teen friendships, homosexuality, trying desperately to conform with peers, and so on.  Naomi and Ely’s No Kiss List is a great book, and one which I struggled to put down.

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Children on Their Birthdays by Truman Capote *****
As with the delightful Breakfast at Tiffany’s, I got straight into these stories from the outset. I love the stunning sense of place which Capote never fails to create, and his characters are both marvellously and deftly constructed. His writing is just perfect. The tales in Children on Their Birthdays are short, but boy, are they powerful and thought provoking.

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A Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams *****
Williams portrays relationships, even the most complicated, in a masterful manner. I love the way in which he writes. His characterisation is second to none, and he gives one so much to admire in each scene, each act. The characters were all fundamentally troubled souls, each imperfect in his or her own way, but they worked so well as a cast, and Blanche Du Bois is eternally endearing. Williams’ dialogue is pitch perfect. An absolutely marvellous, perceptive, strong and unforgettable play, and one which I’m now longing to see performed.

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Classics Club #20: ‘Suddenly Last Summer’ by Tennessee Williams ****

Anyone who knows me will be aware that I adore Tennesee Williams’ plays.  I was utterly captivated by A Streetcar Named Desire and Sweet Bird of Youth, and loved studying Cat on a Hot Tin Roof – my first foray into his work – at school.  A prolific playwright, I was thrilled to find that there were many of Williams’ works which I had not read, and decided to add the randomly chosen Suddenly Last Summer to my Classics Club list accordingly.

In 1958, Suddenly Last Summer was first presented at the York Theater in New York City along with Something Unspoken, under the collective title of Garden District.  The play in question here is relatively short, and contains just seven characters, two of whom hover on the periphery throughout.

Mrs Venable, one of the play’s protagonists, begins by speaking of her late son: ‘it still shocks me a little… to realize that Sebastian Venable the poet is still unknown outside of a small coterie of friends, including his mother’.  Much of the play then circles around her meeting with her niece, Catharine, whom she believes is responsible for his death.  When questioned by Doctor Sugar about whether such a meeting is a good idea, Mrs Venable says: ‘I won’t collapse!  She’ll collapse!  I mean her lies will collapse – not my truth – not the truth…’.  She goes on to say: ‘I had to make it clear to you that the world lost a great deal too when I lost my son last summer’.

As ever, when I began to read, I was struck immediately by Williams’ in-depth stage directions and settings.  Here, they begin: ‘The set may be as unrealistic as the decor of a dramatic ballet.  It represents part of a mansion of Victorian Gothic style in the Garden District of New Orleans on a late afternoon, between late summer and early fall.  The interior is blended with a fantastic garden which is more like a tropical jungle…  There are massive tree-flowers that suggest organs of a body, torn out, still glistening with undried blood…’.  The same masterful descriptions run to the initial introductions of his characters, too.  The first sight which we have of Mrs Venable, for example, is this: ‘A lady enters with the assistance of a silver-knobbed cane.  She has light orange or pink hair and wears a lavender lace dress, and over her withered bosom is pinned a starfish of diamonds’.  I love the way in which Williams makes good use of the senses to set scenes and build characters, and the original descriptions which he builds in – ‘the narrow beach, the color of caviar’, ‘each day we would – carve out each day of our lives like a piece of sculpture’, and the ‘quick, dancelike movement’ of Catharine smoking a cigarette.

One of my favourite elements of the play was the way in which, even though Sebastian has died, he is still ever-present; he is spoken about so often, and is such an intrinsic part of the plot, that it is as though he is there throughout proceedings.  The characters have such depth to them, even those who only appear in partial scenes or situations.  Williams has encompassed so many themes which come to the surface throughout, from madness, instability, and the veils of lies which have been drawn, to greed, loneliness, and the pain which can be wrought by knowledge.

Suddenly Last Summer held my interest from start to finish.  It is taut, clever and intriguing, and its vivid darkness particularly has been so well controlled.  As a character study alone, it is wonderful; as a psychological work, incredibly believable.  Suddenly Last Summer has been marvellously plotted, and I imagine that it would be fascinating to watch on the stage.

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‘The Importance of Being Earnest’ by Oscar Wilde ***** (Reading Ireland Month)

I read Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest as part of Reading Ireland Month, hosted by Cathy746books and The Fluff Is Raging.

Oscar Wilde is one of the authors I absolutely adore. And yet, despite being an English Literature graduate, I had never had the chance to read The Importance of Being Earnest until now. I had dealt with some of its jokes and punch lines in a translation course, I watched scenes of a Greek TV adaptation and of another theatre adaptation of it, but I had never really read the actual and full text.

122638I doubt there are many of you literary people that are unfamiliar with the plot of this ingenius play, but I will provide a short synopsis just in case. Set in England during the 1890s, the play presents the ostensible love troubles and struggles of Jack Worthing and his friend, Algernon Montecrieff, as they try to gain the affection of the two ladies they are in love with. Instead of adhering to the conventional processes, though, they both decide to take up a different identity and lie about their lives; lies that ensue in a number of misunderstandings, false alarms but unexpected revelations as well.

Wilde’s humour and satire are insurmountable. He does not hesitate to poke fun at the society that prevailed at his time and at the people that constituted it. He makes rather scathing and poignant remarks through his characters’ voice and comments about the behaviour of the people at the time, as well as about issues like the publishing of novels by not particularly bright people and so on.

The plot is not necessarily great or even unpredictable nowadays, but Wilde’s writing style and the social issues he decides to tackle still coincide with how society works and how people behave and think in our very own time, despite the fact that more than 100 years have gone by since the time it was written and set in. People’s constant lying in order to impress others, climb higher in people’s estime and attain a more respectful treatment reverberates the behaviour of the people of today as well.

I might be quite biased when it comes to Oscar Wilde and his brilliant work, but I thoroughly enjoyed every part and every moment of this play. I loved the humour, the dialogues, the wit, the characters’ reactions – pretty much everything. I highly recommend this play to anyone who wants to spend some time laughing and snickering over a beautifully written plot and some greatly constructed characters. This play is a perfect companion as a quick evening read or even as something to cheer you up after a tough day. It has definitely wetted my appetite for the rest of Wilde’s plays, an endeavour which I shall embark in soon.

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‘Cathleen Ni Houlihan’ by W.B. Yeats *** (Reading Ireland Month)

The first book I decided to review for the Reading Ireland Month (hosted by Cathy746books and The Fluff Is Raging) is none other than W.B. Yeats’ play Cathleen Ni Houlihan. Written in 1902 and performed in April of the same year in Dublin, it is a play of great symbolic and historic significance for Ireland and the turbulent period it refers to.

51y2tXTmiUL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ Cathleen Ni Houlihan is set in an Irish village during the Rebellion of 1798 against the British and it follows a critical moment in the lives of a peasant family, whose eldest son, Michael, is soon to get married. The play opens with his parents discussing about the dowry his son is to receive from the bride’s family and they seem to be rather concerned about their financial state, indicating their (and especially the mother’s) preoccupation with material things more than anything else. While having this conversation, sounds of war and battle reach their ears, but they pay no particular attention to them, with the exception of a brief comment.

All of a sudden, an old and rather mysterious woman appears at their door asking for help. However, it is not food or money that she seeks but the men’s help, and especially Michael’s, to get her house back. The family doesn’t seem to recognise the woman, since her manner of speaking is more confusing rather than helpful. The old woman proves to be none other than Cathleen Ni Houlihan, a mythological figure in Irish folklore who is said to represent Ireland herself.

Yeats is well known for his fascination by folklore and mythology and his deeply rooted nationalism as well. Therefore, it is no surprise that he chose to write a play about such an important figure of the Irish tradition. Cathleen Ni Houlihan has appeared in quite a few literary works and pieces of art as a symbol for Ireland and she is always depicted as a woman trying to recruit men who are willing to fight for her liberty. Many have said that this play is political and propagandistic, but Yeats himself has denied any such intentions while writing and producing it. As he had stated once, he prefered distinguishing between politics and art and didn’t want to let one interfere with the other in such a manner as to be considered a propaganda of sorts.

Yeats co-wrote this play with Lady Gregory. In a letter he wrote to her in 1903 he wrote of the play:

One night I had a dream almost as distinct as a vision, of a cottage where there was well-being and firelight and talk of marriage, and into the midst of that cottage there came an old woman in a long cloak. She was Ireland herself, that Cathleen ni Houlihan for whom so many songs have been sung and about whom so many stories have been told and for whose sake so many have gone to their death. I thought if I could write this out as a little play I could make others see my dream as I had seen it, but I could not get down out of that high window of dramatic verse, and in spite of all you had done for me I had not the country speech. One has to live among the people, like you…”

Cathleen Ni Houlihan is a short, one-act play full of symbolism. I think it depicts quite accurately what the lives of the people belonging to the lower classes were like in the Irish villages at the time of the rebellion. It tackles important themes, such as duty, family, finance and, of course, nationalistic pride, an element which permeats this play. Yeats believed in the purity of the Irish people, in the image of the honest and intellectual peasant, who cared more about abstract things like duty towards the country rather than about material things like money. This is why, through this play, Yeats also manages to pass his critique on the so-called ‘corruption’ of the Irish purity as he perceived it.

It is undoubtedly an enjoyable play that evokes some thoughts while reading it and makes you think about what is morally right or wrong. I believe it is a play of great importance for the Irish literary culture, since it contains so many elements and information about it. I would like to also watch it one day, so as to get a full picture of it.

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